On Thursday, the UN-backed court established to trial former leaders of the genocidal Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia delivered its final decision, upholding the man’s genocide conviction.
The following is a list of further genocides that have been acknowledged by the international community, tribunals, or individual states:
First genocidal act: Namibia
Germany admitted to committing genocide in Namibia during the colonial era in 2021.
Between 1904 and 1908, German immigrants massacred tens of thousands of native Herero and Nama people, committing the first genocide of the 20th century, according to historians.
According to Armenia, up to 1.5 million Armenians were slaughtered by Ottoman Turk forces between 1915 and 1917 as part of World War I.
With the support of some 30 countries, it has long pushed for international recognition of this as genocide.
The accusation is vigorously denied by Turkey, which yet acknowledges that up to 500,000 Armenians perished during mass expulsions from eastern Anatolia due to conflict, massacres, or hunger.
The Maoist Khmer Rouge administration terrorized Cambodia for four years, from 1975 to 1979, during which time two million people perished through malnutrition, executions in large numbers, and overwork.
Nuon Chea and Khieu Samphan, the regime’s two most prominent surviving officials, were found guilty of genocide in 2018 by a UN-sponsored tribunal in Cambodia.
Early in April 1994, the ethnic Hutu president of Rwanda was assassinated when his plane was shot down in an attack that the government later attributed to Tutsi rebels.
Over the next 100 days, at least 800,000 people—mostly Tutsis and some moderate Hutus—were massacred, according to the UN.
In the Tanzanian city of Arusha, the UN established the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. In 1998, it handed down the first genocide conviction in history.
Since then, courts in the US, Canada, and a number of European nations have also found fugitive Rwandans guilty of involvement in the bloodshed.
The International Court of Justice, the highest court under the UN, recognized the 1995 slaughter of more than 8,000 Muslim men and boys by Bosnian Serb forces at Srebrenica, eastern Bosnia, as a genocide in 2007.
A special UN court sentenced former Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic and military supremo Ratko Mladic to life in prison for genocide.
Former president Omar al-Bashir, who is wanted for genocide due to conflict that broke out in the western Darfur region in 2003, will reportedly be handed up to the International Criminal Court in 2021, according to Sudan.
According to UN estimates, 300,000 people died as a result of the Darfur conflict.
Yazidis in Iraq
Islamic State jihadists in 2014 carried out a massacre of Yazidis, a Kurdish-speaking community in northwestern Iraq.
In 2021, a German court convicted an Iraqi jihadist of “genocide”.
The parliaments of several Western states have also termed the crimes “genocide”.
Rohingya in Myanmar
Around one million members of Myanmar’s mostly Muslim Rohingya community fled the Buddhist-majority country for Bangladesh since August 2017, amid reports of rape, murder and arson.
Myanmar has been accused of “genocide” by The Hague-based International Court of Justice (ICJ).
The International Criminal Court has also opened a probe, and in March the US declared the violence against the Rohingya constituted genocide.
The Uyghur minority in western Xinjiang province is allegedly being “genocided” by China, according to lawmakers in various western nations.
According to rights organizations, “re-education camps” have been used to imprison at least a million members of primarily Muslim minority in Xinjiang.
In a report released by the UN earlier this month, the term “genocide” was not used but the abuses might be considered “crimes against humanity.”
China has denied any wrongdoing, claiming that it operates centers for vocational training to thwart radicalism.